مقایسه و ارزیابی رویکردها در زمینة نفرین منابع طبیعی

نوع مقاله: علمی-ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه مازندران

2 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد نظری دانشگاه مازندران

چکیده

کشورهای برخوردار از نفت، مواد معدنی و به‌طور کلی ثروت منابع طبیعی، در نشان‌دادن عملکرد مناسب اقتصادی دربرابر همتایان خود که از چنین منابعی بی‏بهره‏اند، ناکام مانده‏اند؛ و این امر عمدتاً به‌علت آثار جانبی ناخوشایند چنین منابعی است. در این پژوهش، با مرور ادبیات این حوزه، برخی از مهم‏ترین سازوکارهای اثرگذاری منابع طبیعی بررسی می‌شود؛ مواردی نظیر: 1. روند بلندمدت در قیمت جهانی، 2. نوسانات قیمت، 3. کوچک‌شدن دائمی بخش صنعت، 4. نهادهای استبدادی و جرگه‏سالار (الیگارشی)، 5. نبودِ نهادهایی که به ناپایداری و هرج و مرج دامن می‏زنند، 6. چرخه‏ای‌بودن بیماری هلندی. در این میان، تردیدگرایان، اساساً مفهومی به نام «نفرین منابع طبیعی» را زیر سؤال می‌برند و به برخی از کشورهای صادرکنندۀ کالا که عملکرد موفقیت‏آمیزی داشته‌اند، اشاره و چنین استدلال می‏کنند که صادرات و رونق منابع الزاماً پدیده‏هایی برون‏زا نیستند. همچنین، در این مقاله، برخی نهادها و سیاست‏های برگرفته از تجربه و پیشینۀ موفق کشورهایی پیشنهاد می‌شود که به توانمندی استفادۀ مناسب از چنین منابعی دست‏ یافته‏اند. نتیجه‏گیری نهایی از سازوکارهای متعدد اثرگذاری منابع طبیعی چنین نیست که نیاز به ثروت مواد معدنی، ضرورتاً به توسعه‌‌نیافتگی اقتصادی و سیاسی ازطریق بسیاری از این سازوکارها منجر خواهد شد؛ بلکه به‌جای آن، بهتر است به فراوانی منابع به‌عنوان شمشیری دولبه نگاه کرد، که هم مزایا و هم خطرهایی درپی دارد: به همان اندازه که ممکن است صرف امور نابه‌جا شود، به‌کارگیری شایستۀ آن می‌‌تواند منافع بی‌شماری را به‌ارمغان آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Approaches about Natural Resource Curse;Comparison and Assessment

نویسندگان [English]

  • عباس امینی 1
  • زهرا (میلا) علمی 2
1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه مازندران
2 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد نظری دانشگاه مازندران
چکیده [English]

Countries enjoying oil, mineral materials and natural resources in general have failed to show a good economic performance compared with countries lacking such resources. This is mainly due to the unpleasant side effects of such resources. After a literature review, this paper studies some of the most significant mechanisms of the impact of natural resources including the long-term international price trend, price fluctuations, permanent contraction of industry sector, hegemonic and oligarchic institutions, lack of institutions creating instability and chaos, and the rotation of Dutch disease. Among these mechanisms, skeptics have questioned the Natural Resource Curse, pointing to the examples of commodity-exporting countries that have done well and arguing that resource endowments and booms are not exogenous. This paper also suggests some institutions and policies derived from the successful experience and background of countries which have achieved the capability of appropriate utilization of such resources. It is finally concluded that the need for the wealth of mineral materials does not necessarily lead to lack of economic and political development through many of mechanisms of impact of natural resources. Instead, it would be better to look at the abundance of natural resources as a double-edged sword with both benefits and dangers. It can be utilized inappropriately, or lead to profit-making if applied correctly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • abundance of natural resources
  • natural resource curse
  • Economic Growth
  • establishments
  • policies
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